Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide but it is not a common disease in men. Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease and involves several tumor factors with distinct histological patterns and clinical behaviors. In men under the age of 35, breast cancer is very rare, but its likelihood increases with age. Altered Estrogen Metabolism, Gynecomastia, and Klinefelters Syndrome have important roles in breast cancer progress in men. Klinefelter is the most common sex chromosomal abnormality and their karyotypes are often 47, xxy. Patients with Klinefelter are at high risk of developing breast cancer.
Klinefelter is characterized by various physical, developmental and hormonal changes, including androgen to estrogen levels. Several breast cancer risk factors operate through hormonal mechanisms, namely obesity and inactivity, which are likely to affect both breast cancer risk factors. In men, the underlying mechanisms are linked not only to increased estrogen but also to decreased testosterone and globin-related sex hormones, consistent with the hormonal changes found in Klinefelter patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hormonal changes in Klinefelter men's breast cancer using bioinformatics methods to introduce biomarkers.
Male breast tissue contains receptors for androgen, estrogen, and progesterone. Estrogen invigorates channel improvement and progesterone animates alveolar advancement within the sight of the lenient front pituitary hormones luteinizing hormone, follicle animating hormone, and development hormone. Androgens estrange the impacts of estrogen. A high prolactin level doesn't invigorate bosom tissue development however adjusts the creation of luteinizing hormone by stifling creation of gonadotrophin hormone discharging hormone.